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Module list

Oncology – Bladder cancer

A good TURBT
Continent urinary diversion in bladder cancer
Cystectomy - how to achieve the best results
Does the use of chemoradiation enable preservation of the bladder in bladder cancer?
Epidemiology and risk factors for bladder cancer
Investigation of haematuria
Management of BCG failure in high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Management of non-urothelial cancers of the bladder I: squamous cell carcinoma
Management of non-urothelial cancers of the bladder II: adenocarcinoma, sarcoma and others
Managing the primary in muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: understanding and managing risk
Pathology of bladder cancer
Robotic cystectomy and lymph node dissection
Surveillance strategies after bladder cancer treatment
The evidence for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer
The role of partial cystectomy for primary surgical management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer

Oncology – Kidney cancer

Complications of partial nephrectomy and their management
How to perform an open partial nephrectomy for RCC
How to perform an open radical nephrectomy for RCC
Imaging and kidney cancer

Immunotherapy in urological malignancy
Management of renal cell carcinoma with vena cava involvement
Management of small renal masses with thermal ablation
Managing lymph nodes in RCC
Managing small renal masses
Metastatic renal cancer - what is the role of surgery for primary disease?
Minimally invasive partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma
Partial versus radical nephrectomy
Pathological classification of non-RCC renal parenchymal tumours
Pathological classification of renal cell tumours
Percutaneous biopsy for RCC
Principles and management of hereditary renal cell carcinoma
RCC - how to perform left-sided laparoscopic nephrectomy
RCC - how to perform right-sided laparoscopic nephrectomy
Surgery for recurrent renal cell carcinoma
Targeted therapy for advanced renal cancer
The evolution of metastatic kidney cancer treatment - from interferons to the novel immunotherapies
When is active surveillance for the small renal mass appropriate?

Oncology – Penile cancer

Management of penile cancer nodal disease
Penile cancer - investigation for nodal status?
Penile cancer diagnosis and staging
Phalloplasty following amputation for penile cancer
Quality of life after penile cancer surgery
Sentinel node biopsy in penile cancer
The role of systemic chemotherapy in penile cancer
The surgical management of invasive penile cancer
Total penectomy and penis sparing surgery in penile cancer

Oncology – Prostate cancer

Brachytherapy for prostate cancer
Can a negative multiparametric MRI substitute prostate biopsy?
Essentials of cryotherapy in prostate cancer
Evidence for focal therapy for prostate cancer
HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer
Heating the prostate - HIFU and its role
Is screening for prostate cancer proven or justified?
Management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (1) - androgen receptor pathway inhibitors
Management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (2) - chemotherapy
Management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (3) - bone treatments
Managing the lymph nodes in prostate cancer
MRI prostate - how should MRI be used in staging of prostate cancer?
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate gland
Nuclear imaging in prostate cancer
Principles of hormone therapy for prostate cancer
Prostate biopsy: what is the appropriate approach?
Prostate cancer biomarkers - PSA: is there still a role?
Prostate cancer: local and systemic management of recurrent disease
Prostate MRI - how should MRI be practically used in active surveillance?
RARP - the semi-continuous approach to vesico-urethral anastomosis
Technical modifications during radical prostatectomy to speed recovery of urinary incontinence
Techniques for and follow-up after external beam radiation treatment for prostate cancer
The argument and techniques of focal therapy
The genetics and genomics of prostate cancer
The role of surgery for T3 prostate cancer
The timing of chemotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer
The timing of hormonal therapy in advanced prostate cancer
Transperineal biopsy of the prostate
Treating the primary tumour in oligometastatic prostate cancer
Use of frozen section at radical prostatectomy
Who should be offered active surveillance?
Who should be offered radiation treatment in the management of prostate cancer?
Who should be offered radical prostatectomy?

Oncology – Testicular cancer

Management of clinical stage 1 seminoma with surveillance
Pathological subtypes of testicular tumours
Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection - operative technique
The management of advanced germ cell tumours
The management of stage I NSGCT

Oncology – Upper tract cancer

Contemporary systemic therapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma
Epidemiology of upper tract urothelial carcinoma - a UK perspective
Focal therapy for upper urinary tract tumours
Imaging and pathological staging of upper tract TCC
Is there a role for organ preserving surgery in upper tract urothelial carcinoma?
Is there a role for systemic chemotherapy in upper tract urothelial carcinoma?
Managing the primary - upper tract urothelial carcinoma
Radical surgery for upper tract urothelial carcinoma

Urolithiasis and Endourology

A manual for performing flexible ureterorenoscopy
Approach and management of lower pole renal stones
Cryoablation of small kidney tumours
Current evidence for NBI technology in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer
Current guidelines in the management of ureteric calculi
Current protocol for the optimisation of shock wave lithotripsy
Current status and comparison of intracorporeal lithotripsy
Current understanding and management of staghorn calculi
Development and use of the ureteric stent
Does tract size matter in PCNL?
Extra-anatomic stents: indications, technique and results
Guidelines on surgical management of renal stones in a normal kidney
How to avoid complications in flexible ureteroscopy
How to avoid complications in PCNL
How to avoid infective complications during surgical management of urinary stones
How to deal with urinary stones during pregnancy
How to remove a bladder stone
Key steps to perform a laparoscopic dismembered transperitoneal pyeloplasty
Key steps to perform an open dismembered pyeloplasty
Management of urinary stones in abnormal kidneys
Percutaneous endoscopic management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma
Renal access in the prone-flexed and lateral-flexed positions
Robotic-assisted retroperitoneal pyeloplasty: indications and key steps
Step-by-step technical considerations for laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy
Step-by-step technical considerations for TURBT
Step-by-step technical considerations in semi-rigid ureteroscopy
Surgical options for PUJ obstruction - endopyelotomy technique and case selection
Technical advances and current status of retrograde intrarenal surgery accessories
Technical advances of the ureteroscope: semi-rigid, flexible, video, disposable and robotic
The changing epidemiology of stone disease in the Western world
The role of medical expulsion therapy in the management of urinary stones
Understanding management of benign ureteral strictures
Understanding the technique and rationale for ECIRS
Ureteroscopic management of upper tract urothelial cancer
What are the challenges of managing stones in renal calyceal diverticula?
Why is my patient having recurrent renal stones?

Urogenital Infections

Aetiology and diagnosis of bacterial chronic prostatitis (Type II) and CPPS (Type III)
Aetiology and management of urethritis
Aetiopathogenesis and management of acute epididymo-orchitis
Aetiopathogenesis and management of catheter-induced urinary tract infections
Aetiopathogenesis and management of urinary tract infections in patients with spinal cord injury
Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in pregnancy
Bacterial resistance mechanisms in urological infections and how they can be overcome
Challenges in antimicrobials
Chemoprophylaxis for surgery for UGTB and management of tubercular stricture disease
Contemporary diagnosis of genitourinary tuberculosis
Drug treatment of GUTB - short course DOTS and multi-drug resistance management
Endourological procedures in the management of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB)
Fungal infections of the urinary tract and factors predisposing to these infections
How to diagnose and manage tubercular epididymitis and prostatitis
How to evaluate and manage fungal infections of the penis
How to manage acute bacterial prostatitis
How to manage non-functioning kidney in genitourinary tuberculosis
How to manage recurrent urinary tract infections in women
Hydatid disease of genitourinary system
Management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS)
Pharmacokinetics in prostatitis
Prevalence and management of infertility in men with GUTB
The aetiopathogenesis of genitourinary infections and antibiotic resistance mechanisms
The pathogenesis and management of renal and perinephric abscess
The principles of antimicrobial therapy - prophylaxis, infection prevention and control
The principles of antimicrobial therapy - urogenital infections and treatment options
Urological dermatoses: recognition and management
Urological manifestations of HIV infection
Urological manifestations of schistosomiasis and their treatment
What is the role of cranberry juice in recurrent urinary tract infections?
What is the role of HPV infection in urogenital malignancies?
WHO recommended notifiable diseases

BPH and LUT Dysfunction

Beta-3 agonists in the management of detrusor overactivity
Bipolar techniques in the surgical treatment of BPH
Clinical phenotyping for interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome using the UPOINT system
Combination therapy for LUTS: who and when?
Does botulinum toxin work for refractory OAB?
First choice for refractory OAB - onabotulinumtoxinA or sacral nerve stimulation?
Future technologies for benign prostatic enlargement
Greenlight laser photoselective vapourisation of the prostate - a step by step guide
Greenlight laser photoselective vapourisation of the prostate - an overview
How to do it: sequencing and combining OAB treatments
Identification and management of ketamine bladder
Identifying and managing TUR syndrome
Initial assessment of voiding lower urinary tract symptoms
Injection therapy in the management of BPH: botulinum toxin
Interpreting multi-channel urodynamics - a primer
Is there still a role for microwave thermotherapy in the management of BPH?
Is there still a role for simple prostatectomy today?
Is there still a role for urethral stents in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia?
Is TURP still the gold standard for surgical management of BPO?
Laser enucleation in the management of BPH
Lower urinary tract dysfunction in the elderly
Managing detrusor underactivity
Managing patients with concomitant LUTS and erectile dysfunction
Managing storage LUTS in the BPH patient
Managing the patient with interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome
Novel intraprostatic injectable agents in the treatment of BPH
Optimal use and interpretation of uroflow studies
Overactive bladder (OAB): definition and medical management strategies
Overactive bladder (OAB): surgical management strategies
Paruresis: understanding and managing the bashful/shy bladder
Pharmacological treatments for OAB
Plasma kinetic vapourisation in the management of BPH
Prostatic artery embolisation in the management of BPH
Prostatic urethral lift procedure in the management of BPH
Robotically assisted Aquablation for BPH
Robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy
Sacral neuromodulation for refractory LUTS
Safe and effective use of botulinum toxin for refractory LUTS
Spinal shock: urological management in acute spinal cord injury
Thermal energy treatments for BPE
Understanding and managing nocturnal polyuria
Understanding of chronic pelvic pain and bladder pain
Understanding prostate cancer risk in the use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors
Update on alpha blocker monotherapy in LUTS
Update on anticholinergic therapy for OAB

Using 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors for LUTS
Video step-by-step - the prostatic urethral lift implant
Video step-by-step: HoLEP
Video step-by-step: TURP
Videourodynamics: when to use them and how to interpret them
Who can we predict is going to have progression of BPH/LUTS?

Paediatric Urology

(Minor) gynaecological disorders in childhood
Antenatal hydronephrosis (1) - postnatal evaluation and initial management
Antenatal hydronephrosis (2) - further imaging, diagnosis and management
Assessment and investigation of the non-neuropathic wet child
Assessment and management of paediatric hydrocele and hernia - a guide for the non-specialist
Foreskin conditions in paediatric practice
Genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma
How to investigate renal calculi in a child
Hypospadias: classification and standardisation of terminology
Hypospadias: repair of distal hypospadias
Investigation and management of upper tract obstruction in children
Investigation and management of Wilms' tumour
Investigations of haematuria in the child
Long term outcomes of bladder exstrophy and their implications
Long-term complications of posterior urethral valves
Management of megameatus intact prepuce
Management of the non-neuropathic wet child
Management of urachal anomalies
Megaureter – classification, presentation and management
Modern staged repair of bladder exstrophy
Optimal timing of orchidopexy
Paediatric pyeloplasty - laparoscopic and robotic technique and outcome
Paediatric pyeloplasty: open operative technique and outcome
Penile plastic operations in childhood
Postnatal bladder function after in utero repair of myelomeningocele: a literature review
Principles of neonatal bladder exstrophy management
Revisional hypospadias surgery
Surgery for undescended testes: open and laparoscopic
Surgical aspects of neuroblastoma
Surgical interventions for the neuropathic bladder and bowel in childhood
Testicular torsion - diagnosis and management
The acute management of posterior urethral valves
Urinary tract trauma management in the child
Vesico-ureteric reflux: endoscopic management
Vesico-ureteric reflux: natural history, investigation and non-surgical management
Vesico-ureteric reflux: open and laparoscopic management
What are the relevant urological associations with imperforate anus?

Andrology and Infertility

A practical approach to complications of penile prosthesis surgery
Adult preputioplasty: role and outcomes
Anejaculation and anorgasmia - evaluation and management
Are all PDE5 inhibitors the same?
Best evidence approach for penile treatment for radical prostatectomy patients
Complications of vasectomy and their management, particularly post-vasectomy pain syndrome
Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens - diagnosis and management
Cryopreservation - techniques, process and patient experience
Current role of venous leakage surgeries
Description of penile prosthesis surgery and revision
Dhat syndrome
Diagnosis and management of the buried penis
Does nocturnal penile tumescence testing still have a role in ED evaluation?
Effects of varicocele on testicular function and its pathogenesis
Epidemiology and diagnosis of premature ejaculation
Evaluation and management of azoospermia
Evaluation and management of haematospermia
Genetics of male infertility
Guidelines for varicocelectomy in a young male
Indications and contraindications for testosterone replacement therapy
Indications and options for surgical management of Peyronie's disease
Is there a genuine association between erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms?
Klinefelter syndrome and success of sperm retrieval
Management of penile lichen sclerosus
Management of traumatic penile amputation
Medical management of male infertility
Medical management of priapism, with a focus on PDE5 inhibitors
Metabolic syndrome and men’s health
Non-surgical management of Peyronie's disease
Physiology of ejaculation
Physiology of erection
Physiology of spermatogenesis
Risks and complications of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in male infertility
Role of antioxidants in male fertility
Role of the epididymis in sperm maturation
Second-line treatment options for erectile dysfunction
Sperm retrieval for assisted reproduction
Surgery for priapism
Surgical approach to Peyronie's disease
Surgical techniques for vasectomy
The metabolic syndrome, erectile dysfunction and testosterone deficiency
The use of low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (LIST) in erectile dysfunction (ED)
Treatment options for patients with premature ejaculation
Ultrasound diagnosis of varicocele
Varicocelectomy - which approach?
Vasectomy reversal - predictors of success
Vasectomy reversal - techniques and outcomes
What are low- and high-flow priapism and their underlying causes?
What is premature ejaculation?
What is the evidence that male circumcision can prevent infection?
Which men are better suited for a penile prosthesis?
Which patients with erectile dysfunction need Doppler and cavernosogram / cavernosometry

Reconstructive Urology

Aetiology and assessment of ureteric obstruction
Anastomotic urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture disease
Anastomotic urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI)
Artificial urinary sphincter for post-prostatectomy stress urinary incontinence - current devices

Artificial urinary sphincter for post-prostatectomy stress urinary incontinence – the future
Augmentation cystoplasty - indications, technique and outcomes
Bladder neck closure and suprapubic catheter diversion
Continent cutaneous urinary diversion
Dilatation/urethrotomy/meatotomy - indications and outcomes
Early- and long-term complications of ileal conduit urinary diversions
Female urethral stricture disease and female urethroplasty
Formation of an ileal conduit: the Wallace anastomosis
Genitourinary manifestations of multiple sclerosis
Genitourinary manifestations of Parkinson's disease
Genitourinary manifestations of spina bifida in adults
Long-term management of the urinary tract in patients with spinal cord injury
Mainz II pouch - indications, patient selection and peri-operative management
Managing the urinary tract in the spinal cord injured patient
Metabolic complications of urinary diversion
Physiology of micturition and bladder controls
Post-prostatectomy incontinence - risk factors and diagnosis
Primer on neurological control of micturition
Principles of reconstruction of the ureter with a Boari flap or psoas hitch
Principles of ureteric reconstruction with trans-uretero-ureterostomy or intestinal substitution
Robotic urinary reconstruction
Substitution and augmentation urethroplasty
Suburethral sling surgery for post-prostatectomy incontinence
The management and follow-up of ureteric strictures
The role of tissue engineering for urethral stricture disease

Female Urology

Adverse events of implanted mesh for female incontinence
Are injectables still relevant in genuine stress urinary incontinence?
Cystoceles for urologists
Dealing with urethral diverticulum
Does botulinum toxin work for refractory OAB?
Drug therapies for OAB - which antimuscarinic?
Female urinary retention: diagnosis and management
How to select the best surgical option for genuine stress urinary incontinence
Incidence, risk factors and tips for the prevention of urological injuries in pelvic surgery
Latest status on slings in urodynamic stress urinary incontinence
Management of interstitial cystitis
Pelvic floor rehabilitation for urodynamic stress urinary incontinence
Reasons behind female bladder dysfunction
Surgical and non-surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse
Surgical management of urinary tract-vaginal fistulae in the developed world
The role of urodynamics in the management of female urinary incontinence
Urinary retention in women: aetiology and diagnostic approach
Vesicovaginal fistula in the developing world

Transplant and Nephrology

Common immunosuppressants: complications in renal transplantation
Hand-assist, laparoscopic and robotic live donor nephrectomy
Live donor long-term follow-up: is the living donor at long-term risk?
Management of transitional cell tumours in a transplanted kidney or ureter
Management of transplant kidney calculus obstruction
Operating on patients on dialysis - what are the anaesthetic and surgical issues?
Prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients
Review of urological cancer incidence in renal transplant recipients
Should a history of renal stones exclude a live donor?
Should a pre-existing hostile bladder be managed before or after kidney transplant?
Should TURP be performed before or after renal transplant?
Surgical approaches for polycystic nephrectomy
Techniques for managing transplant kidney RCC
Techniques for repair of a stenosed transplant ureter
The evidence for use of live donors with pre-existing hypertension
Vascular anastomoses and ureteric implantation techniques
What is the role of renal transplant in HIV-positive patients with CKD?

Trauma and Emergency

Acute retention: incidence and management
Aetiology, presentation and management of prostatic abscess
Aetiopathogenesis and management of sepsis in urology
Autonomic dysreflexia - risk factors, presentation and management
Classification and management of genital and testicular trauma
Contemporary management of low-flow priapism
Early or delayed re-approximation of the injured proximal urethra?
Emergency management of bleeding angiomyolipomas
Emphysematous pyelonephritis - conservative versus surgical management
Grade 4 renal injuries - the role of conservative management
How to manage hydronephrosis in pregnancy
Investigation and management of acute pyelonephritis
Management algorithm for post-TURP bleeding
Management of bladder perforation after TURBT
Management of low pressure and high pressure chronic retention
Management of post-obstructive diuresis
Management of the transiently hypertensive and confused patient after TURP
Medical and surgical management of haemorrhagic cystitis
Microbiological interaction in the genesis of Fournier’s gangrene
Nephrectomy for xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis
Nephrostomy versus retrograde stent for the obstructed infected kidney
Pathogenesis, investigation and medical management of primary RPF
Review of the role of imaging in testicular torsion
Role of hyperbaric oxygen in radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis
Stepwise management of a damaged lower ureter
The role of imaging in pregnancy associated loin pain
TRUS biopsy and multi-resistant bacterial infection

Safe Patient Care and Professionalism

Appropriate use of antimicrobial prophylaxis for diagnostic endoscopic procedures
Blood-borne virus transmission from patient to surgeon: what do I need to know?
Cancer risk from exposure to diagnostic ionising radiation
Causes and management of surgically induced respiratory syndrome and other acute lung injury
Clinical decision-making and treatment escalation planning in the last year of life
Communicating bad news effectively
Decontamination of surgical equipment and medical devices used in urology
Defining and obtaining informed consent
Designing a clinical trial
Developmental mentoring - its role in the professional development of surgeons
Effective leadership
Fracture of the penis
Haemostatic agents, sealants and tissue adhesives used in urological surgery
How are surgeons affected when things go wrong, and what can be done to help?
How much trust can you put on published data in the medical literature?
Keeping good records - implications for patient and physician safety in the electronic era
Key tools for analysing medical data
Making the right decision - bias in clinical practice and how to manage it
Non-surgical management of massive blood loss in the urological patient
Optimising early patient discharge after urological surgery - the Enhanced Recovery Programme (ERP)
Optimising pain control in the postoperative patient
Peri-operative venous thromboembolism - pharmacological prophylaxis in urological surgery
Professionalism: definitions and principles
Responsible opioid use for urologists
Social media in urology: opportunities and benefits
Social media in urology: professionalism and pitfalls
The surgical safety checklist: implementation and impact
Understanding direct oral anticoagulants: an update for urology practice

Video Library

Anastomotic urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral injury
Anastomotic urethroplasty: using 3D video recording as a teaching tool
Double-faced BMG urethroplasty for female urethral strictures
Endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery
Escutcheonectomy with penile split thickness skin graft
Female robotic cystectomy and intra-corporeal ileal conduit
Greenlight XPS - photosensitive laser vapourisation in the management of BPH
Insertion and change of extra-anatomic stents
Intrafascial nerve-sparing endoscopic extraperitoneal radical prostatectomy (nsEERPE)
Laparoscopic approach to intra-abdominal undescended testicle
Laparoscopic heminephrectomy in horseshoe kidney
Laparoscopic retrocaval pyeloplasty
Laparoscopic right adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma
Laparoscopic varicocele ligation for symptomatic bilateral varicoceles
Laser endopyelotomy
Left laparoscopic nephrectomy for non-functioning kidney
Lingual mucosal graft, an alternative to buccal mucosa
Male double-face urethroplasty
Management of panurethral strictures with Kulkarni technique
Modified supine PCNL
Open radical prostatectomy
Pedicled preputial tube urethroplasty for bulbar necrosis in PFUDD
Penile fracture
Prostate median lobe resection
Prostatic urethral lift implant
Rezum thermal vapour treatment of BPH
Right laparoscopic nephrectomy for T1b renal cancer
Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy
Robotic-assisted radical cysto-prostatectomy and intra-corporeal ileal conduit
Robotic-assisted ureterectomy and Boari flap reconstruction for distal ureteric tumours
Safe and efficient technique of ureterocele excision in duplex systems
Super-mini PCNL
Super-mini percutaneous cystolitholapaxy
Transgender urethroplasty
Transperineal prostate biopsy procedure - robotic and MRI fusion guided
Transperineal template biopsy of prostate

All BJUI Knowledge modules are allocated a digitial object identifier (DOI) at publication and each module has its own URL including its DOI. This means each module can be searched for using the DOI and also ensures stable links for BJUI Knowledge content over time. In addition, the DOIs of references used in BJUI Knowledge modules are provided, where available.

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